Nanoparticles generally refer to ions within 100nm in the transition region between macroscopic objects and atomic clusters, and are usually called ultrafine particles. Polymer nanospheres are an important part of nanoparticles. Compared with other nanoparticles, they have the characteristics of stable structure, designable molecular composition, ion uniformity and controllable particle size, so they can respond in addition to pH, magnetic field and temperature. In addition, it also has quantum tunneling effect, small size effect and surface effect.
Figure 1. TEM diagrams and common structures of polymer nanospheres.
- Rubber industry: In the rubber industry, the density of traditional fillers is higher than that of general raw rubber, which will increase the density of the filled composite material and increase the weight of rubber. The density of polymer nanospheres is low, and the structure can be designed. The use of polymer nanospheres as fillers is beneficial to modify the polymer nanospheres according to the different use conditions of the rubber, so that the rubber is developed in the direction of diversification and high efficiency, and the lightweight of the rubber composite material is ensured.
- Purification and separation process: Polymer nanospheres are high molecular polymers formed by polymerization of styrene and divinylbenzene, mostly resins, which are widely used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Polymer nanospheres have become one of the indispensable separation media in the purification process. The purification method is simple, easy and stable, and the chromatographic medium can be used repeatedly, providing a certain theory for the industrialization of the product.
- Nano-drugs: Nano-drugs use nano-sized molecules as carriers and are combined with anti-cancer drugs by wrapping or bonding. Compared with free small-molecule anti-tumor drugs, nano-drugs have the characteristics of large surface area, enhanced pharmacokinetic stability, and significantly reduced toxic and side effects. They can improve the bioavailability, penetration, controlled release and decrease of anti-cancer drugs. There are irreplaceable advantages in many aspects such as drug resistance. The carrier based on polymer nanospheres has great advantages, such as convenient design and synthesis, appropriate particle size and shape, good biocompatibility, high drug loading efficiency, and biodegradability.
- Lubricant: Polymer nanospheres can greatly improve the pressure lubrication ability of a certain water-based liquid. The principle is microscopic rolling and film formation. The lubricating performance of general water-based liquids is worse than that of oils, and they are generally not used for pure lubrication. Compounding polymer nanospheres with water-based liquids can increase its stability, lubricity, and reduce viscosity.
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