Oligonucleotides are a general term for short-chain nucleotides with less than 50 bases including nucleotides in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA). Oligonucleotides can be easily docked with their complementary strands, so they are often used as probes to determine the structure of DNA or RNA, and are often used in gene chips, electrophoresis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. DNA synthesized by oligonucleotides (deoxyribonucleic acid) can be used for chain polymerization reactions, which can amplify and determine almost all DNA fragments. In this process, oligonucleotides are used as primers to combine with complementary fragments labeled in DNA to make replicas of DNA. Regulatory oligonucleotides are used to inhibit RNA fragments and prevent their translation into proteins, and can also play a role in preventing cancer cell activity.
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of oligonucleotide design principles
Figure 2. Using antisense oligonucleotides to guide ADAR for RNA editing
Figure 3. Oligonucleotide, RNA binding decoy molecule
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