Battery can convert chemical energy into electric energy, which is clean and efficient. There are many types of batteries: alkaline zinc-manganese battery, fuel battery, Ni-MH battery and lithium ion battery. Among them, lithium ion battery is currently the most widely researched. Battery materials refer to those materials that can make up the battery. The properties of battery materials decide the performances of batteries.
Figure 1. Examples of batteries.
- 3C industry: 3C products have emerged with the development of electronic industry in recent years, mainly referring to computer, communication and consumer electronic products. In order to realize portability of 3C products, small size and light-weight battery materials are ideal candidates.
Figure 2. Examples of 3C products that use battery materials.
- Battery electric vehicle: In order to solve environmental pollution and relieve the energy shortage, battery electric vehicles have been popular among the public and the government in recent years. Therefore, as clean energy, long-life and high-energy-density battery materials are ideal to this field to alleviate those problems.
- The others: Battery materials with excellent cycle life usually are suitable for designing energy storage devices. Moreover, high power battery materials are commonly used in startup devices.
- Cathode materials: In a battery, cathode material is very important, which can be mainly divided into layered structure cathode materials, spinel structure cathode materials, olivine cathode materials and the others.
- Anode materials: Anode materials include carbon materials and non-carbon materials. Carbon material has the characteristics of easy preparation, low cost and good stability, so it is suitable to be used as anode material at present. As for the next generation battery, alloy materials such as Si, SiO2, Ge and SnO2, can meet the demands of high energy density.
- Electrolyte materials: The electrolyte material in the battery is an ionic conductor and an electronic insulator, which allows the transfer of ions while preventing short circuits. The state of electrolyte materials can be liquid and solid. Among them, liquid electrolyte materials are widely popular in the current market. However, solid electrolyte materials are used to design solid battery, which is safer than current batteries, and have a promising application prospect.
- Diaphragm materials: The diaphragm material acts as a separation between positive and negative electrodes in the battery. According to the electrolyte, the diaphragm material is also different, and the diaphragm should be able to resist the electrolyte corrosion. According to the raw materials, the diaphragm materials can be divided into inorganic materials and polymer materials.
- Binder: Battery binder is a kind of polymer compound, which is an inactive component in the battery electrode. According to the solubility, battery binder can be divided into water soluble material and oil soluble material. Common binders are polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) and SBR rubber.
- Islam, M, S, et al. Lithium and sodium battery cathode materials: computational insights into voltage, diffusion and nanostructural properties[J]. Chemical Society Reviews, 2014,43, 185-204.