Glass belongs to amorphous inorganic nonmetallic materials, generally with a variety of inorganic minerals (such as quartz sand, borax, boric acid, barite, barium carbonate, limestone, feldspar, soda, etc.) as the main raw materials, and add a small number of auxiliary materials made. The main components of glass are silica and other oxides. The chemical composition of ordinary glass is Na2SiO3, CaSiO3, SiO2 or Na2O·CaO·6SiO2, which belongs to the mixture. Glass is generally colorless, there are also mixed with some metal oxide or salt and the color of the tinted glass and through the physical or chemical method of toughened glass. Some transparent plastics, such as polymethyl methacrylate, are sometimes referred to as plexiglass.
Ceramics are made from natural clay and various natural minerals by grinding, mixing, molding and calcination. Ceramic is the general term for pottery and porcelain. The difference between pottery and porcelain is the difference in raw materials and temperature. Pottery was fired at 800-1000 degrees, while porcelain was fired with kaolin at 1300-1400 degrees. The chemical composition, mineral composition, physical properties, and manufacturing methods of pottery and porcelain are often close to each other without distinct boundaries, but differ greatly in applications.
Glass has been in human life for more than four thousand years. It is widely used in the fields of architecture, daily use, art, medicine, chemistry, electronics, instrument, nuclear engineering and so on.
Figure 1. Glass architecture
Ceramics also has a long history. Its application fields mainly involve art decoration and daily life.
Figure 2. Ceramic artwork
According to different classification methods, glass can be divided into various kinds of glass. For example, depending on the process, glass can be divided into ordinary plate glass and deeply processed glass. Glass can be divided into oxide glass and non-oxide glass according to its composition. According to different properties, glass can be divided into tempered glass, porous glass, conductive glass, glass-ceramics and insulating glass.