Electronic materials are at the forefront of materials science and engineering, which refer materials that used in electronics and microelectronics. As the base of electronic products, the quality of electronic materials significantly affects the economic benefits of electronic industry. Moreover, many knowledges, such as electronic technology, physical chemistry, solid state physics and process technology, will be involved when design and preparation of electronic materials. After made into electronic components and integrated circuits, electronic materials should have consistency and stability, which can withstand a variety of harsh environment, such as high temperature and strong impulse force. Furthermore, because the development and production of electronic components is developing towards miniaturization and high integration, electronic materials also need to meet these requirements.
- Energy and electricity field: Nowadays, the demand for electric energy is increasing day by day. As an important electronic material, superconductor material can be applied in energy and electricity field. Introducing superconductor material can overcome the inherent defects of conventional electric power technology, and will bring great changes to the electric power industry.
Figure 1. Picture of superconductor cable structure.
- Lighting field: As an important kind of electronic material, semiconductor material is widely used in lighting field. Semiconductor lighting products with high efficiency and low energy consumption will become a new generation of electric light source and also can be applied in traffic lights, mobile phone backlight and the others.
Figure 2. Pictures of semiconductor lights.
- Transportation field: Electronic materials can be widely applied in transportation field to promote the speed of trains or ships. The typical representative is maglev trains and superconducting electromagnetic propulsion ships.
Figure 3. Superconducting materials used in propulsion motor.
- Biomedical field: Electronic materials play an irreplaceable role in the field of biomedicine and greatly promote the progress of biomedicine, such as magnetic resonance imaging apparatus, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer and biomedical sensors.
Figure 4. Electronic material designed as an a immunosensor.
- The others: Electronic materials can also be used in the electrical industry, infrared detection and the others.
There are many kinds of electronic materials. According to the application fields, electronic materials can be divided into superconducting materials, semiconductor materials, piezoelectric materials, electroacoustic materials, and the others.
- Superconducting materials: Superconducting materials are those that exhibit zero resistance and repel magnetic field lines at certain low temperatures.
- Semiconductor materials: Semiconductor materials are a class of electronic materials with semiconductor properties which can be used to make semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Semiconductor materials can be classified into inorganic compound semiconductor materials, organic compound semiconductor materials and the others.
- Piezoelectric materials: Piezoelectric materials can be divided into inorganic piezoelectric materials and organic piezoelectric materials. Furthermore, inorganic piezoelectric materials include piezoelectric crystals and piezoelectric ceramics. Organic piezoelectric materials, also known as piezoelectric polymers, are flexible, low density, low impedance and high voltage constant.
- Electroacoustic materials: Electroacoustic materials can realize the conversion of electricity and sound, using the principle of electromagnetic induction, electrostatic induction or piezoelectric effect.
- The others: Electronic materials also include microelectronic materials, electrical materials, ferroelectric materials and the others.
- Miroslav P. Overview of Piezoelectric Biosensors, Immunosensors and DNA Sensors and Their Applications[J]. Materials, 2018, 11(3):448.