The mesoporous material has the characteristics of extremely high specific surface area, regular and orderly channel structure, narrow pore size distribution, and continuously adjustable pore size. The ordered pores of this material can be used as a "microreactor", in which a uniform and stable "guest" material with a nano-scale is assembled into a "host-guest material" due to the host-guest effect between the host and the guest. The small size effect and quantum size effect that the material may have will make it expected to be widely used in the fields of electrode materials, optoelectronic devices, microelectronic technology, chemical sensors, and nonlinear optical materials.
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of surface and internal action of mesoporous materials.
- Catalyst: Mesoporous materials have high specific surface area and regular pore structure, which can not only be used as a catalyst, but also as an excellent carrier for some catalysts. As a catalyst carrier, it can not only improve the dispersibility of five catalytic activities, but also significantly enhance the catalytic efficiency and diffusion mass transfer.
- Shape-selective adsorption and separation: Mesoporous materials have a high specific surface area and huge pore volume, and their composition and pore diameter can be flexibly adjusted, so as to achieve shape-selective adsorption and selective separation of different molecular structures and different volumes of molecules. This feature of mesoporous materials has a very promising application prospect in the field of adsorption and separation of harmful exhaust gas, high-efficiency and low-cost treatment of domestic sewage and industrial sewage.
- Battery: Mesoporous materials have a large specific surface area and a rich pore structure, which is conducive to the diffusion of ions in their pores. The use of mesoporous materials as electrodes can significantly improve the charge transfer performance, so that the electrodes can be quickly charged and discharged. At the same time, some mesoporous materials also have ideal capacitance behavior.
- Medical application: The physical and chemical properties of mesoporous materials are stable, non-toxic to human body, and has large specific surface area as well as adjustable pore size. Therefore, it has unique applications in medicine and genetic engineering. For example, the silane group in some mesoporous materials can be used as a new active site for reaction with organic guest molecules, which is conducive to the uniform distribution of drugs bound to the active site in the pore channels so as to effectively avoid the peak and valley phenomenon of blood drug concentration.
- Silicon-based mesoporous material: The material has a narrow distribution, regular pore structure, and mature technology, and there is a lot of research. Silicon-based materials can be used in catalysis, separation and purification, drug-embedded slow-release, gas sensing and other fields.
- Non-silicon mesoporous materials: This material mainly includes transition metal oxides, phosphates and sulfides. Because they generally have variable valence states, it is possible to open up new application fields for mesoporous materials and show application prospects that silicon-based mesoporous materials cannot reach.
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