Aliphatic resin is a copolymer formed by a series of polymerization reactions of aliphatic compounds. A variety of aliphatic resins can be produced by using aliphatic compounds with different functional groups in the molecular structure as raw materials, and then adopting different ratios of ingredients and different processes.
Because aliphatic resins have the advantages of rich variety, simple synthesis process and superior performance, they can be used as diluents, photoresists, adsorbents, etc. At the same time, they are also widely used in coatings and leather industries.
- Diluent: Generally speaking, aliphatic resins and aromatic resins have similar properties and functions. However, the viscosity of aliphatic resins is often lower than that of aromatic resins. Therefore, in industry, aliphatic resins are often used as diluents to be added to aromatic resins to achieve the modification of aromatic resins. For example, solvent-free epoxy resin coating is one of the typical non-polluting coating varieties. However, the viscosity of the general solvent-free epoxy resin coating is too high, which causes inconvenience to the coating operation. In order to reduce the viscosity of the epoxy resin, a common method is to add a reactive diluent to the epoxy resin. Aliphatic resin structures often contain monofunctional groups and can be added as a diluent to solvent-free epoxy resins to reduce viscosity and optimize the performance of epoxy resins.
- Adsorbent: Some aliphatic resins have a strong adsorption effect on ions, so they can be used as ion adsorbents. Cr3+ is a necessary trace element for human body, but excessive accumulation of Cr3+ has carcinogenic effect on human body. Moreover, Cr3+ can be easily converted into more toxic Cr6+ under certain environmental conditions. Therefore, the treatment of wastewater containing Cr3+ is receiving more and more attention. Compared with other Cr3+-containing wastewater treatment methods, the ion exchange method can avoid "secondary pollution" and can realize the reuse of heavy metals. The aliphatic sulfonic acid cation exchange resin has a group that can undergo ion exchange reaction with Cr3+ and can be used for the treatment of wastewater containing Cr3+.
- Leather: Some aliphatic resins have a wide range of applications in the leather field. Synthetic leather products not only need to be strong and durable, but also have a good appearance and feel. Aliphatic resin is one of the raw materials commonly used in the production of synthetic leather. In the production of synthetic leather and post-processing of synthetic leather, in order to improve the surface feel of synthetic leather, increase the water resistance and heat resistance of synthetic leather, a small amount of additives will be added. For example, the biggest characteristic of aliphatic polyurethane resin is its excellent yellowing resistance, which is often used in light-colored high-grade synthetic leather products.
Figure 1. Resin synthetic leather
- Printing and lithography: Aliphatic resins have good transparency to light and also have good water solubility, so they are often used to prepare photosensitive resins. Photosensitive resins can undergo certain physical and chemical property changes under the influence of light. Synthetic photosensitive resin has become increasingly popular as a printing plate-making material. It is also widely used as a photoresist in the process of manufacturing electronic components. For example, 11-T photosensitive resin is a photoresist with superior performance. It is a photosensitive resin mainly composed of a small amount of sebacic acid and pentaerythritol modified maleic anhydride-triethylene glycol-based unsaturated polyester. This resin molecule contains more double bonds and polar groups to increase its speed of sensitivity and water solubility. At the same time, sebacic acid and pentaerythritol can give macromolecules flexibility and branching, respectively, thus ensuring the practical toughness, strength and moisture resistance of the printing plate after photosensitive crosslinking.
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